Types of Hajj
Any person intending to perform Hajj opts for either one of the three types of Hajj:
TAMATTU: Making Umrah then Hajj in the prescribed months of Hajj. It is considered the best of the three forms of Hajj that the Prophet Mohammed (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) urged his followers to perform. (You have to be in the state of Ihram for Umrah first and then again for Hajj). This is the kind of Hajj normally done when going to Mecca for Hajj from other countries.
QIRAAN: Making Umrah and Hajj at the same time. (You have to be in the state of Ihram until Hajj finishes.)
IFRAAD: Making Hajj only; without Umrah.
*If you select Tamattu or Qiraan you must perform Sacrifice / Qurbani.
Hajj Points to Note
Before Hajj - don't forget to: Pay all debts, Redress all wrongs and Write your Will.
Remember, Hajj requires more of etiquette because a pilgrim has to spend six days in the company of an international assembly of people. Spirit of camaraderie and fraternity must be nurtured.
It is incumbent upon every Muslim who is capable of performing Hajj to make the intention to go. It is therefore wise to fulfill the duty of performing Hajj at the first available opportunity. This is why the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) advised: 'Hasten to (perform) Hajj for one of you does not know what impediment might come in his way' (Ahmad). It is indeed, a serious neglect of our duty if we keep postponing the performance of Hajj.
Restrictions of Ihram
In the state of Ihram the following acts are forbidden:
- 1. To cut or shave the hairs of head or body, until the sacrifice of animals is completed.
- 2. To cut the nails.
- 3. To wear stitched clothes (for men only).
- 4. To wear turban or cap or anything which covers the heads (for men only).
- 5. To wear shoes or socks above the ankle.
- 6. To cover the face.
- 7. Perfuming oneself while in Ihram.
- 8. To fight or quarrel.
- 9. To hunt animals, or to aid a hunter in any way or to chase a wild animal.
- 10. To injure any wild animal, even removing its feathers or breaking its eggs.
- 11. Remove milk of a wild animal, cook meat of a wild animal or purchase a wild animal.
- 12. Getting married, engaged or marrying someone else.
- 13. Passionate/affectionate relations with spouses in a manner less than sexual intercourse (Mubaashara or foreplay).
- 14. To have sexual intercourse (Jima').
Effects of Violating Ihram Restrictions
If conditions 1-14 above are violated one must offer its FIDYAH (penalty):- sacrifice a sheep, OR feed 6 poor people half Sa (i.e. 2 * cupped handfuls of staple food per person), OR fast 3 days BUT the Hajj is valid and NOT nullified. If condition 14 (sex) is violated before 1st stage of Ihram finishes then Hajj becomes invalid: - so must continue till end, sacrifice camel and do Hajj next year. If one has sex (or foreplay) after 1st stage but before 2nd stage of Ihram ends then Hajj remains valid but offer Fidyah.
Types of Tawaaf
This Tawaaf is for those who come from outside Meeqat. Those people who live outside the Meeqat and come for Hajj or Umrah are called "Aafaaqi". Meeqat are the boundaries from which you cannot proceed for Hajj or Umrah without Ihram. It is a Sunnah for those who are performing Hajj Ifrad and Hajj Qiran. This is also called Tawaf Tahiyya and Tawaf Ul Liqa.
This is also called Tawaaf Ifadah, Tawaaf Rukn, Tawaaf Wajib and Tawaaf Yaum Un Nahr. This is an article of Hajj. The Haj is not complete without this. The time for this from the dawn of 10th Dhul Hijjah to 12th Dhul Hijjah. 'Dam' (sacrifice of an animal) becomes Wajib on delay.
This is also called Tawaaf Sadar and Tawaaf Rukhsat. This is Wajib on "Aafaaqi". The time for this starts after Tawaaf Ziarat and there is no last time for this. It can be performed anytime in life. However, it is Afzal to perform it while leaving Mecca.
This Tawaaf is Farz in Umrah.
This can be performed anytime. For an "Aafaaqi", this Tawaf is better than offering Nafl Sala'at. The privilege of Tawaaf cannot be gained anywhere, so while in Mecca, perform as much Tawaaf as you can.
This Tawaaf is Mustahab (commendable) for those enter Masjid-al- Haram.
This Tawaaf is Wajib on those who make a Nazar (promise) that they will perform Tawaaf.
Note: As per Fiqh Hanafi, it is Wajib to perform 2 Raka'at Wajib Ut Tawaf after every Tawaaf.
Rules for Tawaaf
- 1. One should be in the state of Ihram before starting Tawaaf.
- 2. There are three conditions essential for Tawaaf of Umrah and for all other kinds of Tawaaf as well, namely: a. To be a Muslim b. Niyat (intention) c. To perform Tawaaf inside Masjid al-Haram Without Niyat, Tawaaf is not valid. Tawaaf can be performed in Mataf or on different floors of Masjid al-Haram or even on its roof.
- 3. While performing Tawaaf, one should not look towards Ka'bah. One has to face Ka'bah only when doing Istilam of Hajr-e-Aswad.
- 4. After completing the seven circuits of Tawaaf, if someone deliberately starts the eighth circuit, it becomes obligatory (wajib) for him to complete the second Tawaaf by doing six more circuits.
- 5. Undesirable times for prayer are not considered undesirable for performing Tawaaf.
- 6. If someone has to discontinue Tawaaf because of time for prescribed prayer or because a dead body is brought for a funeral prayer or need for fresh ablutions arises, he can later resume Tawaaf at the point where he discontinued.
NAFL Tawaaf: If you want to perform just a nafl Tawaaf, follow the same procedure, however, in a nafl Tawaaf there is no Ihram, no Ramal, no Iztaba and even no Sa'ee.
Rules for Sa'ee
- 1. Sa'ee is obligatory (wajib) after the conclusion of the Tawaaf and not before it.
- 2. To be free from impurity is not obligatory (wajib) for Sa'ee, therefore, women during their monthly period can perform Sa'ee although they are not allowed to enter Masjid al-Haram, offer Salat or perform Tawaaf. They can enter the place of Sa'ee from the outside entrance. But it is a Sunnah to be free from all types of impurity and be in the state of ablutions during Sa'ee.
- 3. Sa'ee has seven trips and all are obligatory (wajib). Just remember all seven trips have to be completed.
- 4. It is a Sunnah to start Sa'ee right after Tawaaf but it is not obligatory (wajib). Therefore, if Sa'ee is delayed for some reason, there is no penalty.
- 5. It is obligatory (wajib) to start Sa'ee from the hill of Safa and end at Marwahh.
- 6. It is obligatory to perform Sa'ee on foot unless somebody has an excuse when it can be performed by riding.
- 7. During the Sa'ee of Umrah, it is obligatory to be in the state of Ihram. One should also be in Ihram for the Sa'ee performed after Tawaaf-e-Qudum, but it is a Sunnah to perform the Sa'ee after Tawaaf-e-Ziarat in ordinary clothes.
- 8. Sa'ee is performed only once during Hajj, either after Tawaaf-e-Qudum or Tawaaf-e-Ziarat. But it is better to perform Sa'ee after Tawaaf-e-Ziarat.
- 9. It is a Sunnah to climb the hills of Safa and Marwahh and raise hands for supplication, facing the Ka'bah.
- 10. It is undesirable (Makrooh) to do business during Sa'ee, but one can talk if the need arises.
Important Advice for Sa'ee:
While walking between Safa and Marwah, reflect upon the Tawakkul (Reliance and Trust) on Allah by Hajra (RadhiAllahu Anha - the mother of Prophet Ismail). Allah ordered her husband, Ibrahim (Alaihis Salaam) to leave her all alone in that barren valley with her baby and she obeyed Allah and accepted that relying on Allah to protect. But she carried out her duty repeatedly racing between and climbing the mount Safa and Marwah searching for help or water for her and her baby, confident of Allah's help. Allah sent Angel Jibreel (Alaihis Salaam) to strike the ground with his wing and the water of Zamzam sprang forth! This is where baby Ismail was digging his heels while crying.
Also remember while reciting dua on the two mounts, a similar incident when Allah ordered Prophet Mohammed (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) and Muslims to risk their lives and face an army of various tribes allied against them. They responded and did their part by digging a trench and prepared to meet the challenge, confident of Allah's help. Allah tested their Taqwa and Tawwakul and then sufficed them of having to lose their lives or properties - Allah defeated the Confederate/allied (Ahzab) tribes by Himself by sending fierce winds against the Pagans, fear ripping their hearts and forcing them to return home dejected never to return thereafter against the Believers!
During Sa'ee we reflect on these two incidents, supplicate and increase in Iman, Taqwa (piety) and Tawakkul (Reliance and Trust) - InshaAllah.
Rukn, Wajib and Mustahab Rites of Umrah / Hajj
Rukn (Pillar): Must do Rukn rites or else the Umrah/Hajj is invalid (see Effects of Violating Ihram section for Invalid Hajj).
Wajib (compulsory): Must do Wajib rites but if left then must do FIDYAH (See Effects of Violating Ihram section)
Mustahab (Encouraged): These acts are part of a complete proper Hajj but no penalty if left out any.
1. Rukn (Pillars) parts of Hajj
- a. Being in a state of Ihraam
- b. Be in Arafat even a moment between Zuhur 9th Dhul-Hijja to Fajr 10th Dhul-Hijja.
- c. Tawaaf-e-Ifadah
- d. Sa'ee
(Some scholars say (a) & (d) are Wajib but not rukn).
2. Waajib (compulsory) parts of Hajj
- a. Ihraam from its proper place
- b. Remain in Arafat until sun sets
- c. Stay at Muzdalifah until half of night at least
- d. Stone Jamaraat correctly on 10th & 11 to 12/13th DhulHijah
- e. Shave or shorten hair
- f. Spend at least three nights in Mina from 8th Dhul-Hijjah to 13th Dhul-Hijjah
- g. Tawaaf-e-Widaa (Women in menses can omit this)
- h. Sacrifice animal for Haj Tamatu & Qiran but not Mufrid but if cannot then fast 3 days in Hajj and 7 days later.
3. Mustahab (Encouraged): All remaining Hajj rites